Foreword: An invitation to read for resilience

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In this foreword to a collection on independent writing units, Louise Weatherbee Phelps suggests applying the whole systems approach (Cox, Galin, & Melzer, 2018) to writing programs outside of WAC. She suggests using the WSA to conduct retrospective analyses of independent writing units as well as longitudinal analyses (p. xii). She reminds readers that many independent writing programs had their start as WAC/WID programs and states: “We can build on [Cox, Galin, & Melzer’s] splendid start to develop deeper theoretical understandings of independence, interdependence, identity, and resilience in the units that house writing studies” (p. xii).